PRISMA is the Italian Space Agency’s first proof-of-concept hyperspectral mission launched in March 2019. The present work aims to evaluate the accuracy of PRISMA’s standard Level 2d (L2d) products in visible and near-infrared (NIR) spectral regions over water bodies. For this assessment, an analytical comparison was performed with in situ water reflectance available through the ocean color component of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET-OC). In total, 109 cloud-free images over 20 inland and coastal water sites worldwide were available for the match-up analysis, covering a period of three years. The quality of L2d products was further evaluated as a function of ancillary parameters, such as the trophic state of the water, aerosol optical depth (AOD), observation and illumination geometry, and the distance from the coastline (DC). The results showed significant levels of uncertainty in the L2d reflectance products, with median symmetric accuracies (MdSA) varying from 33% in the green to more than 100% in the blue and NIR bands, with higher median uncertainties in oligotrophic waters (MdSA of 85% for the entire spectral range) than in meso-eutrophic (MdSA of 46%) where spectral shapes were retained adequately. Slight variations in the statistical agreement were then noted depending on AOD values, observation and illumination geometry, and DC. Overall, the results indicate that water-specific atmospheric correction algorithms should be developed and tested to fully exploit PRISMA data as a precursor for future operational hyperspectral missions as the standard L2d products are mostly intended for terrestrial applications.


imaging spectroscopy, inland and coastal waters, atmospheric correction


Pellegrino, A.; Fabbretto, A.; Bresciani, M.; de Lima, T.M.A.; Braga, F.; Pahlevan, N.; Brando, V.E.; Kratzer, S.; Gianinetto, M.; Giardino, C., (2023). Assessing the Accuracy of PRISMA Standard Reflectance Products in Globally Distributed Aquatic Remote Sens. 2023, 15(8), 2163; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15082163